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从葡萄嫩芽到葡萄酒的全过程!葡萄酒是有生命的

作者:澳洲引航者日期:2018-12-24 16:57:02

葡萄酒是有生命的。从在树枝上缓慢生长的葡萄,到最后装瓶的美酒,它经历了一个质的变化,一次真正的蜕变。


 Wine is alive.From the slow-growing grape on the branch to the final bottle of wine, it has undergone a qualitative change, a real metamorphosing.


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从普通的葡萄到价值不菲的葡萄酒,到底中间要经历怎样的磨练?一次次的等待,一次次的蜕变,一直到进入我们熟知的橡木桶,成长的过程紧张激烈。

From ordinary grapes to expensive wine, what kind of training should we go through?Waiting again and again, changing again and again, until we are familiar with oak barrels, the process of growth is intense.


最终它开始跳脱出橡木桶,被装进了瓶中。它开始为成为优质葡萄酒做最后的努力,透过瓶口的木塞与外界空气不停交换,喘息。逐渐,一瓶青涩的瓶装酒,经过百般磨练,成为爱酒人渴望拥有的至饮。

At last it began to jump out of the oak barrel and into the bottle.It began its final effort to become a fine wine, gasping and exchanging air with the outside world through the cork at the bottle's mouth.Gradually, a bottle of green wine bottle, after all kinds of training, become a love of wine people desire to drink.

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有生命的东西,总是格外贵重的,所以葡萄酒受到大众的喜爱,但它制作的过程是怎样?本文将解密葡萄酒的制作过程,告诉你回味幽长,曼妙口感的葡萄酒到底如何制作出来!


The things of life are always extremely valuable, so wine is popular with the public, but how is it made?This article will decipher the production process of wine, tell you how to make wine with long aftertaste and delicate taste! 

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采摘


Harvests fruit by hand


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葡萄是酿造葡萄酒的唯一材料。当葡萄完全成熟以后,人们开始采收葡萄。如果采收季节遇到下雨,那将是葡萄的灾难,也是葡萄酒的灾难。因为每一滴雨水都可能在短时间内降低葡萄的糖分,从而降低葡萄的质量。

Grapes are the only ingredient in making wine.When the grapes are fully ripe, people begin to harvest them.If it rains during the harvest season, it will be a disaster for grapes and a disaster for wine.Every drop of rain can reduce the sugar content of grapes in a short period of time, thus reducing the quality of grapes.

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采收时,果农们尽量小心翼翼而不使葡萄果粒破损,破损的葡萄会很快腐烂影响酒的风味。葡萄采收后,要尽快送到加工地点,进行破碎加工,尽量保证破碎葡萄的新鲜度。

In harvesting, farmers try to be careful not to damage the grapes, which quickly rot and affect the flavor of the wine.After grape harvesting, the grapes should be sent to the processing site as soon as possible for crushing processing to ensure the freshness of the broken grapes.



破皮去梗

Grape clusters


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红葡萄酒的颜色和口味结构主要来自葡萄皮中的红色素和单宁等,所以必须先使葡萄果粒破裂而释放出果汁,让葡萄汁液能和皮接触,以释放出这些多酚类的物质。

The color and taste structure of red wine mainly come from the red pigment and tannin in grape skin, so it must first break the grape fruit grain and release the juice, so that the grape juice can contact with the skin, in order to release these polyphenols substances.


葡萄梗的单宁较强劲,通常会除去,有些酒厂为了加强单宁的强度会留下一部份的葡萄梗。在很多关于葡萄酒的影片里我们都可以看到破碎葡萄的情景,人们在一个大桶里踩葡萄,可以视为最原始的葡萄秀了。

Grape stalks have strong tannins, which are usually removed, and some wineries leave a portion of the stalk to strengthen the tannins.In many wine movies, we can see the scene of broken grapes. People step on grapes in a VAT, which can be regarded as the most primitive grape show.



直到今天,还有不少地方在采收葡萄的季节里,举行这样的踩葡萄活动,以庆祝丰收和酿酒的开始。虽然大规模的生产,都有专业的机械设备进行压榨,但人们依然向往传统的手工压榨的情趣,这就给葡萄酒的诞生从一开始就注入了浪漫和快乐的元素。

Until today, there are many places in the grape harvest season, held such a step on the grape activities, to celebrate the beginning of harvest and wine.Although large-scale production, there are professional mechanical equipment for the press, but people still yearn for the traditional taste of manual press, which has injected romantic and happy elements into the birth of wine from the very beginning.

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浸皮与发酵


Optical sorter & fermentation



完成破皮去梗后,葡萄汁和皮会一起放入酒槽中,一边发酵一边浸皮。传统多使用无封口的橡木酒槽,现多使用自动控温不锈钢酒槽,较高的温度会加深酒的颜色,但过高(超过32℃)却会杀死酵母并丧失葡萄酒的新鲜果香,所以温度的控制必须适度。这个时间要经过5-7天。

After the peeler is broken and the stalk removed, the grape juice and the peeler will be put into the wine trough together and soaked in the peeler while fermenting.Traditional use oak wine without sealing groove more, now the use of automatic temperature control more stainless steel rack, higher temperature will deepen the color of the wine, but too high (more than 32 ℃) will kill yeast and loss of wine of fresh fruit, so the control of the temperature must be moderate.It takes five to seven days.

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如果要生产新鲜的果香型红葡萄酒,需要在一部分葡萄果粒内进行发酵。这样只要将部分的葡萄果粒破碎,保留20~30%的整粒葡萄。这种发酵方法,由于CO2的浸取作用,使葡萄皮中的芳香物质更多地释放出来。

If you want to produce fresh fruity red wine, you need to ferment some of the grapes.In this way, as long as part of the grapes are crushed, 20-30% of the whole grapes will be preserved.In this fermentation method, aromatic substances in grape skins are released more due to the impregnation of CO2.

用此法制成的葡萄酒具有颜色鲜明,果香宜人(香蕉、樱桃酒等),单宁含量低容易入口等特性,常被用来制造适合年轻时饮用的清淡型红葡萄酒,如法国宝祖利(Beaujolais)出产的新酒原理上制造的特点是将完整的葡萄串放入充满二氧化碳的酒槽中数天,然后再榨汁发酵。


 Made wine with bright color, this pleasant aromas (banana, cherry wine, etc.), low tannin content easy entrance features, often be used to produce light red wine suitable for drinking when he was young, such as France treasure ZuLi (Beaujolais) from the characteristics of the new wine on the principle is the complete the grape bunches of several days in the wine tank full of carbon dioxide, and then juice fermentation.


榨汁与后发酵

Punching & fermentation


主发酵完成后,立即进行皮渣分离,把自流汁合并到干净的容器里,满罐存贮。

 After the main fermentation is completed, the skin and slag shall be separated immediately, and the self-flowing juice shall be combined into a clean container and stored in a full tank.


由于主发酵生产的葡萄原酒,其中的酵母菌还将继续进行酒精发酵,使其残糖进一步降低。这个时候的原酒中残留有口味比较尖酸的苹果酸,必须进行后发酵过程,也叫苹果酸—乳酸发酵过程。这个过程须在保持20°~25℃条件下,经过30天左右才能完成,除去葡萄酒中所有的微生物。才称得上名副其实的红葡萄酒。

Due to the main fermentation production of grape wine, which yeast will continue to carry out alcoholic fermentation, so that its residual sugar further reduced.At this time of the original wine residual taste more acid malic acid, must be carried out after the fermentation process, also known as malic acid-lactic acid fermentation process.This process need to be in their 20 ° ~ 25 ℃ condition, after 30 days or so to complete, remove all the microbes in the wine.This is a veritable red wine.

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橡木桶中的培养


Pumping wine into barrels


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为了使新酒经过贮藏陈酿,逐渐成熟,口味变得柔协、舒顺,达到最佳饮用质量,几乎所有高品质的红酒都经橡木桶的培养。

 In order to make the new wine after storage and aging, gradually mature, taste becomes soft and harmonious, smooth, to achieve the best drinking quality, almost all high-quality red wine is cultivated by oak barrels.

据酿酒葡萄的品种不同,特别是市场消费者对红葡萄酒产品的要求不同,决定红葡萄酒贮藏陈酿的时间长短。

According to the varieties of wine grapes, especially the market consumers have different requirements for red wine products,determines how long red wine will be stored and aged.

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储藏管理

Storage management

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在各种容器中沉睡的葡萄酒仍然在成长,要发生一系列的化学反应和物理—化学反应,使葡萄酒逐渐成熟。

 Wines that sleep in containers are still growing, and a series of chemical and physical-chemical reactions take place to ripen the wine.

为了提高稳定性、使酒成熟,换桶、短暂透气等都是不可少的程序。这个过程是酿酒师最为得意的时候,他要随时品尝每个容器中的葡萄酒的变化,掌握它的口感和成熟度,就像一个坐月子的母亲,悉心呵护刚刚出生的婴儿。

In order to improve the stability and ripening of the wine, barrel changing and short ventilation are indispensable procedures.This process is when the winemaker is most proud, he should always taste the wine in each container changes, master its taste and maturity, like a mother sitting in the moon, carefully care for the baby just born.


澄清后装瓶

Bottling

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刚装瓶的葡萄酒,或刚出厂的葡萄酒,应该是澄清、晶亮、有光泽。瓶装葡萄酒随着装瓶时间的延长,特别是瓶装红葡萄酒,装瓶2~3年以后,普遍会出现浑浊或沉淀现象。虽然多年装瓶的红葡萄酒,沉淀现象是不可避免的,而且这种沉淀的红葡萄酒,不影响饮用质量。

Fresh bottled wine, or fresh wine, should be clear, bright, shiny.Bottled wine with the extension of the bottling time, especially bottled red wine, bottled 2 ~ 3 years later, generally appear turbidity or precipitation phenomenon.Although many years bottle of red wine, precipitation phenomenon is inevitable, and this precipitation of red wine, does not affect the quality of drinking.

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葡萄酒的澄清,分自然澄清和人工澄清两种方法。自然澄清就是酒中的悬浮微粒自然沉淀后分离,但是这种手段是达不到商品葡萄酒装瓶要求的,必须采用人为添加蛋白质类物质来吸附悬浮微粒的澄清手段,以加速澄清过程和增加澄清度。

Wine clarification can be divided into natural clarification and artificial clarification.Natural clarification is the separation of suspended particles in wine after natural precipitation, but this method is not up to the requirements of commercial wine bottling, it must be used to artificially add protein substances to adsorb suspended particles clarification means, in order to speed up the clarification process and increase the degree of clarification.


同时,还需要将葡萄酒在装瓶前加热杀菌或者冷冻处理,或无菌过滤的方法,将葡萄酒中的细菌或酵母菌统统除去,就可以提高葡萄酒的化学稳定性。

At the same time, the wine also needs to be heated before bottling sterilization or freezing treatment, or aseptic filtration method, the wine bacteria or yeast all removed, can improve the chemical stability of the wine.

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最后需要补充的是,过多的冷冻过滤,会损失葡萄酒的果香和色泽,所以在法国,很多酒庄的好酒尽可能的减少过滤,采用自然冷冻和自然澄清,所以陈年老酒就有很多的结晶沉淀,这恰恰说明了酒的内容丰厚。

Finally, it needs to be added that too much freezing filtration will lose the aroma and color of the wine,so in France, the best wines from many wineries are filtered as little as possible, frozen naturally and clarified naturally.Therefore, there is a lot of crystallization and precipitation in the aged wine, which exactly shows the rich content of the wine.


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最后的工序都结束之后,我们就可以装瓶了,装瓶后美酒完成了从葡萄到葡萄酒的蜕变。在瓶中陈年,葡萄酒通过木塞与外界空气接触缓慢氧化,从而达到从青涩到成熟的转化,最后等待懂酒的你品尝美酒!

After the final process is completed, we can bottle the wine, and the wine has completed the transformation from grape to wine.Aging in the bottle, the wine is slowly oxidized through contact with the outside air through the cork, so as to achieve the transition from green to mature, and finally wait for you to taste the wine!

文章来源于红酒资讯


澳洲引航者简介


澳洲引航者(集团)是由澳洲华人投资的一家综合性集团公司,总部驻于澳洲墨尔本。公司立足澳洲,服务东南亚。在中国、越南、马来西亚已设立运营中心。中国运营中心坐落在上海,下辖25个分支机构;越南运营中心位于胡志明市;公司主要经营:澳洲引航者酒业;澳洲引航者系列养生产品;澳洲引航者木业;澳洲移民、留学、投资;澳洲TCCA中华民娃慈济协会。


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